Types of Solar Panel | Power Purchase Agreement – PPA

The Solar Panel works by allowing light particles (photons) to facilitate the free flow of electrons. Thus creating an electrical flow. It contains many photovoltaic cells that are a type of sandwich structure that makes with the help of pieces of material, especially silicon. Silicon is placed under a non-reflective glass to produce PV panels that collect photons in the sun and convert them into DC (direct current) electricity. This DC power then flows to the inverter which converts it into an AC (alternating current) of electrical energy.

Types of Solar Panel | Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)
Types of Solar Panel | Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)

Solar Panels can categorize based on various parameters. Such as the number of divisions they have or the generation they belong to. Based on the number of interfaces. There are single-junction and multi-junction Solar Panels that differ in the number of layers on the solar panel. Then there is the alternative to differentiating solar panels, that is, the next generation. Which focuses on the properties and functioning of different Solar Panels.

First – Generation of Solar Panels

These basic Solar Panels making with the help of monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon. And uses it in a general environment.

Solar monocrystalline (Mono-SI)

These making with the help of monocrystalline silicon. They have a dark appearance throughout the panel with rounded edges. These panels have a very high level of efficiency due to the high purity of the silicon used. They are more expensive due to the quality of the heir to occupy a small space, high power output, and durability.

In India, monocrystalline Solar Panels are available in a panel performance range of 17%, 18%, and 19%.

The price of monocrystalline Solar Panels with a 17% capacity and a range of 250 watts – above 300 W is Rs 47 per Wp.

In the case of 18% Solar Panels, the value is Rs 48 per Wp per 250-300 W and Rs 50 per Wp of more than 300W panels.

19% efficient solar monocrystalline efficiency is the most economical. Their prices range from Rs 42 per Wp per watt range of 200-300 W to Rs 46 per Wp of panels within 0-50 W.

Their production technology is based on the melting of raw silicon. Its outer structure consists of square cells, uncut angles, and blue. They are cheaper than Mono-SI because they use more space to produce equal energy compared to Mono-SI, are more efficient and have a shorter shelf life, and cannot tolerate extreme temperatures.

These locate in the efficiency range of up to 17%. Price of polycrystalline Solar Panels with less than 13% working efficiency from Rs 48 per Wp of 200-250 W to Rs 55 per Wp of 0-50 W. Here is the price list of polycrystalline Solar Panels:

1. With 13% efficiency, Rs 52 per Wp per 150-200 W to Rs 64 per Wp of 0-50 W.

2. With an efficiency of 14%, the cost ranges from Rs 52 per Wp per 200-250 W to Rs 88 per Wp of 0-50W.

3. In the case of 15% efficient panels, the cost ranges from Rs 37 per Wp of 250-300 W to Rs 63 per Wp of 50-100 W.

4. With an efficiency of 16%, costs range from Rs 37 per Wp over 300 W to Rs 68 per Wp of 50-100 W.

5. While with 17% efficient panels, the cost ranges from Rs 36 per Wp over 300 W to Rs 73 per Wp of 0-50 W

Second- Generation Solar Panels

These panels consist of a variety of solar cells with thin films that use to build solar systems by releasing less energy.

Solar Panels with thin-film (TFSC)

These are less expensive options. They are made by placing one or more film photovoltaic material on a substrate. This is cheaper as less material use in its production. These are not suitable for residential purposes because they require large spaces to produce enough energy. They have shorter warrants for their first-generation counterparts. They are ideal for areas with plenty of spaces for installation.

Solar Panels amorphous silicon (A-Si)

These types of solar panels use three-layer technology that is considered advanced in a variety of small films. They are available at a meagre cost but offer only 7% efficiency.

Third- Generation Solar Panels

Solar Panels of this generation use organic and inanimate materials. This includes various small film panels and some of them. Such as ‘‘biohybrid solar cells‘, are still in the development phase.

Cadmium Telluride Solar Panels (CdTe)

These Solar Panels manufacture using Cadmium Telluride. They work well as their production costs are meagre and require a minimal amount of water to produce. The main advantage of these structures is that they can significantly reduce carbon footprint. While the worst is that they can lead to deaths if they are imports or inhaled.

Fixed PV Panels (CVP or HCVP)

These panels are the most efficient type of Solar Panels that are 41% efficient. They use a curved mirror area, and lenses and cooling systems are also integrated to make them more efficient. These are multi-junction solar panels that can work well when exposed to direct sunlight.

The Cost of Solar Panels and government subsidies available for installation

Panels can cost anywhere between Rs 30 per W and Rs, 50 per W. THE standard PV system includes an inverter, cables, batteries (in the case of off-grid systems), etc. In general, PV modules with a higher power are cheaper than WP modules with lower power.

The cost of grid-connected PV systems ranges from Rs 50,000 to 75,000 per kWp. And the cost varies depending on the inverter and the types of Solar panels selected.

The cost of off-grid solar PV systems is approximately Rs 1,00,000 as these PV systems require more expensive batteries.

Cost Estimate of a Solar Roof

The cost of a solar roof estimate at Rs 1,00,000 per kW, including installation costs. If you use a battery for backup, then an additional Rs 25,000 will add to this cost. However, other incentives can reduce this cost. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) is promoting the installation of PV systems and in this case, provides support to users. Up to 30% of subsidies are provided for the installation of Solar Panels on the roof of residential, institutional, and social housing. Also, an 80% emergency reduction is provided for solar roof systems under the Tax Act. Therefore, the cost of a standard roof system for the house after the subsidy and the rapid decline decreased by about 50,400 per kWp.

Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)

The Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) protects the distribution of the Pay-Own Transfer (BOT) payment or private energy center (IPP) permit project. It is between a consumer “offtaker” (usually an electrical appliance) and an independent power producer. The PPA describes here is not suitable for electricity sales in global markets. This summary focuses on low-temperature hot plants (issues may vary slightly in the middle of the rise of tropical or hydro plants).

Types of Solar Panel, Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)
Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)

When a government agency sets up a power station for an independent power company and enters into arrangements to sell electricity to a public company, the public agency simply enters into a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA).

The PPA often replaces the BOT agreement or permit: in addition to the obligations relating to the sale and purchase of energy produced, the PPA also sets out the required structure and results and the operation and specification of the power station.

Power and Energy Sales

The energy producer agrees to give the Consumer the power to obtain power contracts and deliver that power following the Power Purchase Agreement (PPA).

Available Capacity and Electricity Charges

The charging method in the PPA is usually a transit arrangement: the power charge will have a charge (availability fee) to cover the planned costs of the project company (including the return of the project company) and a variable charge to cover variable costs. The acquisition fee is related to the availability of the power station and the variable charge is calculated according to the amount of power provided. The buyer will require a long-term guaranteed discharge from the project so the acquisition fee is usually a small amount to be paid, as long as the plant can be shown to make sure electricity is available.

Third-party sales 

The ability to make third-party sales can improve the financial capacity of the project and protect the buyer from risks such as a reduction in the buyer’s monthly premium. This flexibility also has the advantage that, given the long-term status of the PPA, if the market is not legally removed later the PPA may not need to be completely replaced.

However, consumers are often afraid to allow third-party sales as they want to make sure all the power is available to them at all times so the PPA can set a time limit when every power producer offers to the consumer. Adaptation may need to be included in the PPA to ensure that this special period is not a hindrance to the development/curb of the electricity market in the future. Special provisions for PPAs can create challenges in developing energy markets.

Poor performance and delays of electricity producer 

PPA may impose sanctions or demand that the electricity producer pay the damages paid if the electricity producer fails to deliver the power as promised; especially. If the construction of the project has not complete on time or does not perform as requires upon completion. Lenders will be concerned about ensuring that the demolition does not have a detrimental effect on creditworthiness rates.

Enforcement of law enforcement or law enforcement contract – A power producer usually does not have to pay for damage caused by events beyond his control.

Test state – This should be objective and designed to verify the contractual capacity, reliability, and efficiency of fuel or temperature measurement, certified by an independent engineer.

Termination 

Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) will need to provide for the termination of the termination. (Whether the termination of the contract or automatic termination of default etc.). Including energy producer’s obligations on the supply of goods, calculation of purchase price IPP (if this is considered). What happens to the producer’s staff if IPP is forwarded to the consumer upon termination.

Project performance 

Issues often include scheduled exits and disbursements, performance and maintenance, emergencies, and maintenance of accounts and records.

Legislative changes 

The Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) must deal with tax implications in the event of a change in applicable legislation and the adjustment of tax rates. Lenders will be concerned about ensuring that the project’s cash flow required to provide credit is protected from legal changes.

Virtual Power Purchase Agreement (VPPA)  

Virtual Power Purchase Agreement (VPPA) is in its place in the renewable energy purchasing market, how VPPA works, and why VPPAs have been a popular metal in the United States to date. This paper intends for renewable energy buyers who want to understand the VPPA process.

There are two types of power purchase agreements (PPAs) on the market:

Physical PPA  

Within the physical PPA Agreement, the corporate consumer acquires ownership of the electrons produced by the renewable energy project. These transactions place a burden on the consumer to make money/sell electrons. Which are available by selling them in the full electricity market. Depending on the structure of the contract, the buyer may also pay the transfer costs.

Virtual PPA  

Within the VPPA contract, the corporate buyer is not the owner and is not Within the VPPA contract. The corporate buyer is not the owner and is not responsible for the portable electrons produces by the project. The VPPA is a financial transaction only; which exchanges fix currency flows for fixed-price transactions and renewable energy certificates (RECs). Because VPPA is financially exclusive, the consumer still needs to meet his or her electricity capacity through traditional channels – therefore. VPPA means that the consumer’s relationship with his or her use at the sales level remains unchanged.

In hindsight, the visible PPA was the predominant way to trade in the early years of the company’s renewable energy market, as companies that received more energy usually had higher energy requirements and used.

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